i don't really know about Edward's parents, and the effect they had on him. generally, Edward views the human race as weak and fragile. what human could stand against a vampire, a creature that is powerful, puissant and potent and most of all indestructible. Bella, is even more fragile and absolutely delicate and soft. Just a soft touch of Edward's hands could break her. I think that's why he's really protective of her, "she's like a soap bubble to him, how do you care for them"--SM
However, I think Edward knows more than he lets on. I think he remembers his parents, but I don't think that it had much of an effect on him, AT least not a big one that made him who he is. He became a vampire, and while he was depressed as he roamed the earth for those 90 years he lived as a vampire, he, I believe still has human memories. But really though, when you can live for 90 years, your parents will be a faint memory, even stronger if you wished, but I doubt it effected him, much really.
You know... I actually agree with you here.
Edward, because he's a vampire, views humans as weak, breakable, and fragile. And I get the feeling that he doesn't have much faith in humanity. How horrible would it be to be stuck in a HS and constantly hear things like, "He likes me! Yay!", "Ugh, she's mean, I hate her, she's so stupid, and she's ugly", "Ewwwwwww look at what she's wearing!", etc. After awhile, he just blocked things like that out. It would get annoying to deal with all the shallowness he's surrounded by. So no only is he removed from humanity because he is a vampire, but also because his ability to hear other's thoughts has given him a less than picturesque image of humans.
That being said, a vampire's memories of its human life diminish over time. Doesn't he say at one point throughout the series that the memories are rather fuzzy? Edward probably remembers them a little bit, but not much. So I'm not sure how much of an affect it has on him.
At the same time, Carlisle can remember Edward's parents perfectly. Edward would be able to see Carlisle's memories of them because of his gift. So while Edward himself may not remember it clearly, he can view it clearly through Carlisle's head.
I think it's reasonable to say that one reason he wants Bella to remain human longer is so that she has more time with her parents, but I wouldn't say it's a driving factor in his desire to have her stay human. It may be a small portion of it, but not as significant a reason as some of his other ones are.
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[b]Team Jacob[/b]-- Because dogs are better than leeches. Because real men don't sparkle. Because Romeo is a pansy. Because Jake is HUMAN.